You could do this without "math" by merely looking in the mirror as you sculpt the distorted sculpture.
It would take a while to get coordinated to doing precision work via a cylindrical mirror, but it could definitely be done.
Here is a related example to prove it would be possible. Perceptual scientists have done experiments with special google that reverse left/right or up/down.
After a period of adjustment, the brain "fixes" the problem totally. But if you take off the goggles, it takes a similar period of time for your brain to rewire back to the original settings. 2D images of this sort were popular in Victorian times, but I can't remember what they were called. Obviously, computers were not used in their creation!
Mirriam Webster: producing, relating to, or marked by intentional distortion (as by unequal magnification along perpendicular axes) of an image
Anamorphic lenses are used to film and project very wide film formats, for example, using film in a more typical aspect ratio.
Here are a couple of anamorphic photoshops of scenes which are scaled to decrease the horizontal pixel count, while retaining the vertical pixel count, with resampling:
These are also anamorphic projections, via conversion in photoshop to polar coordinates.
Anamorphosis is a distorted projection or perspective requiring the viewer to use special devices or occupy a specific vantage point to reconstitute the image. The word "anamorphosis" is derived from the Greek prefix ana-, meaning back or again, and the word morphe, meaning shape or form.
Note that the reversible nature of the projection is implied in the word roots.